The ‘seeding units’ were scattered onto a degraded reef area, after a four-week juvenile coral rearing period. Direct transplantation has primarily involved fast-growing corals, with more than three-quarters of case studies using branching coral morphologies. Overall, coral restoration projects focused primarily on fast-growing branching corals (59% of studies). These advertisement taglines relay the relief from tiredness that can be gained through use of these products. For example, of projects with an ecological objective in this review (n = 129), 45% did not measure any relevant metrics to evaluate project success relating to that objective (e.g. Songs with names in it from all around the world. Overall, the main techniques report similar average survival and growth of corals, so decisions on what techniques to use should be based on local conditions, cost, availability of materials and appropriateness based on stated objectives. Coral gardening projects often refer to “fragments” without quantifying the size (average, min, or max) of these units . Socio-economic objectives can be appropriate and important, and we argue against the notion that ecological objectives are the only relevant goals of restoration. In order to access information from projects not published elsewhere, we designed an online survey targeting restoration practitioners. Note: The y-axis for genera and species is substantially truncated for visual purposes. Roles In this review, for example, we found that outcomes of coral restoration projects are largely monitored with biological metrics of corals (e.g. All of these materials can accumulate on reefs, potentially with unforeseen longer term consequences. We used information provided in videos, blog posts and websites to describe further projects (n = 48). Almost three quarters (72%) of case studies reported using more than one coral species in their restoration projects, while the remaining 28% used a single species. Restoration is common practice in terrestrial ecosystems, and is an established management tool for coastal habitats such as wetlands  and shellfish reefs [27–29], but has remained controversial for coral reefs, both in academia and amongst marine managers. Six studies (1.3%) describe the relatively new method of larval enhancement, grouped into two main types: one where larvae are settled on artificial structures, and one where larvae are settled directly onto the reef. Erstellen Sie gute Namen für Spiele, Profile, Marken oder soziale Netzwerke. Of the techniques described in this review, few have demonstrated potential to be scaled up beyond a hectare of restored coral reef. beyond 1ha in a single project) appear to be techniques that use sexually derived propagules as a source for restored coral populations and communities. Travel back in time to check out the early roles of some of Hollywood's heavy hitters. Visualization, 5 Hour Energy. The metric that best illustrates the lack of standardised reporting is growth of corals, where a multitude of creative metrics have been used–including linear extension (the summed length of each individual branch within a colony [62,115,126,127], height , ‘ecological volume’ [129,130], branch width [60,131], number of branches [132–134], basal width  as well as combinations of width, length, height and partial mortality, maximum colony diameter, number of branches, and virtually every other dimension one could think of. There are ongoing refinements of techniques, with a growing focus on scaling up both spatially and temporally. The same lack of precision applies to the term “coral colony”. Investigation, For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click ECS for NOAA Fisheries, Office of Science & Technology, Silver Spring, MD, United States of America, Roles Is the Subject Area "Coral reefs" applicable to this article? Conceptualization, Small-scale projects conducted without substantial input from researchers, academics, non-governmental organisations (NGO) or coral reef managers often do not result in formal written accounts of methods. Finally, while it is clear that practitioners have developed effective methods to successfully grow corals at small scales, it is critical not to view restoration as a replacement for meaningful action on climate change. >10 case studies with survival data on that genus). (2) Poor design of many restoration projects (e.g. While these metrics are important for assessing the feasibility of coral restoration and for refining techniques, ecological monitoring is required to assess the ecological outcomes of restoration efforts and whether or not the initial aims and objectives are met. Currently for coral reefs, the term restoration is used to encompass both ‘restoration’ and ‘rehabilitation’; with the latter emphasising “the reparation of ecosystem processes, productivity and services…” without meaning a return to pre-existing biotic conditions, and often requiring some attendance. Ich hätte gerne einen Namen der total böse klingt, aber nicht sowas wie „Coronatos“. While scale can be achieved through broad uptake by key stakeholders, these projects are likely to harness existing technologies to increase coral cover at select high value sites. Similarly, most projects were spatially small, with a median size of restored areas of 100 m2 (Fig 2). Most studies use a simple binary scoring system (i.e. Percentages, counts and other quantifications from the database refer to the total number of case studies with data in that category. The latter category is critical on an ecosystem scale and requires substantial spatial scaling up of projects, if restoration is to meet future challenges to coral reefs. Investigation, While these authors reported this event in their publication, other practitioners may not know a major mortality event occurred if it happened after the project monitoring ceased, or have little incentive to publish a failed experiment. For example, Lake  highlighted the five obstacles to scaling ecological restoration of freshwater lakes and rivers in Australia, and there is an almost complete overlap with issues emerging from coral restoration projects reviewed during this study. This will speed the transition or coral restoration from small to ecological scales, a transition that is critical to the successful application of coral restoration for reefwide resilience. The disagreement between studies prohibits clear conclusions about the mineral accretions method. These included data on (1) the information source, (2) the case study particulars (e.g. Yes here. Mitigating these will be crucial to successfully scale up projects, and to retain public trust in restoration as a tool for resilience based management. The inconsistency between data sources may be explained by the relatively short time period available for most research projects (e.g. Yes Marine Ecology Consultant, Magnetic Island, Qld, Australia, Roles This issue is now recognised, and groups like The Nature Conservancy’s Reef Resilience Network and the Coral Restoration Consortium are developing and sharing best practice guidelines for coral restoration worldwide. Similarly, mortality or survival are often reported without explaining what specifically is being measured. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, ‘time on the reef’). To the best of our abilities, we avoided duplication of case studies across the four separate sources, so that each case in our review and database represents a separate project. Verewige die Namen Deiner Liebsten im Inneren des filigran in Handarbeit gefertigten Lebensbaum.. Bestehend aus hochwertigem Edelstahl und in den Farben Gold, Silber und Roségold erhältlich, ist unsere Lebensbaum Kette ein bezauberndes kleines Kunstwerk, welches Ihre ganz persönliche Geschichte erzählt.. Diese zierliche Lebensbaum Kette ist vielseitig kombinierbar und passt zu jedem Outfit. Geh' mal zu firstname.de und gebe als Buchstabenfolge Lena ein, da werden ein paar Namen aufgelistet. Further, “restoration attempts to return an ecosystem to its historic trajectory”. blogs and online videos describing projects), and 4) an online survey targeting restoration practitioners (doi:10.5061/dryad.p6r3816). Coral restoration is a rapidly changing field, and large-scale projects may need to be radically different from techniques described in this review. Validation, Reichen Sie Ihre lustigen Spitznamen und coolen Gamertags ein und kopieren Sie das Beste aus der Liste. We included only those case studies which actively conducted coral restoration (i.e. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0226631, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11538-016-0148-2. Similarly, studies with a spatial scale greater than 1 hectare (10,000 m2, n = 17) were mainly monitoring projects of artificial reefs or coral transplantation sites. The technique has been controversial and experiments attempting to verify its effectiveness have had varied outcomes. Similarly, Borell  described negative effects on growth of one species of coral (A. yongei) but positive effects on another (A. pulchra) growing on a cathode, suggesting that results may vary even between congeneric coral species. The remaining database is available from the Dryad Digital Repository: https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.p6r3816. Coral reef ecosystems have suffered an unprecedented loss of habitat-forming hard corals in recent decades. Als Gast ohne Anmeldung umsonst chatten frei, Login anklinken, sofort drin, kostenlos mit chatten ohne registrieren. This mismatch not only prevents scientific evaluation of project outcomes, but also carries the risk of reducing public and academic support for coral restoration in general, by building expectation and then failing to provide evidence to evaluate success or failure. A lack of standardisation in how to record mortality, survival, and growth makes these metrics difficult to compare between studies. The longest monitoring period reported in our data set was 12 years for a transplantation project . Kostenlos chatten frei chatten ohne anmelden im FreeChat. Project administration, To place these values in context within the broader restoration ecology field, an average survival of 66% is substantially higher than that reported in terrestrial ecological restoration, where outplant success tends to fall below 50% [64,65]. Harnessing the power of corals to produce millions of young by reducing these early life history mortalities may be the most likely way to scale up restoration beyond present small-scale solutions. Writing – original draft, We then manually selected studies that fulfilled our criteria for active coral restoration described above (final yield n = 221). Methodology, Methodology, Finally, for the growing number of projects using sexual propagation as a source of coral propagules, which naturally have low survivorship , it becomes an almost meaningless metric. Cocktail geeks call drinks like an Old Fashioned "spirit-forward," which essentially means "boozy." Writing – original draft, No, Is the Subject Area "Endangered species" applicable to this article? Many categories allowed multiple answers (e.g. Conceptualization, Finally, we consulted prior reviews of coral restoration to obtain case studies from their reference lists. The survey consisted of 25 questions querying restoration practitioners regarding projects they had undertaken (S1 File) under JCU human ethics H7218 (following the Australian National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research, 2007). A paucity of documentation, coordination and sharing of knowledge reduces our ability to learn from past successes and failures, and increases the risk of repeatedly testing similar methods and hypotheses. The authors concluded that the main advantage of this method over others is the speed of outplanting compared to methods which attach coral fragments individually. About one fifth of the projects we reviewed (21%) we reviewed involved the creation or addition of substratum, such as artificial reefs. Yes In addition to this review, we have produced an online interactive database to act as a resource for coral restoration practitioners, coral reef managers and scientists (access here), linked throughout the document. those that survived recent bleaching events), coral restoration is ultimately not a replacement for meaningful management of reef resources and action on climate change. Weiterlesen Wenn du mehr über den Vornamen Lisa erfahren möchtest, kannst du die entsprechenden Tabulator-Laschen anklicken. While many projects address this by propagating presumed heat-tolerant corals (i.e. The proportional contribution of coral restoration to the overall carbon footprint of concrete is of course negligible, however there is considerable irony in using a technique for restoration that directly contributes to climate change. Kir Royal (Aus dem Leben eines Klatschreporters) ist eine sechsteilige Fernsehserie von Helmut Dietl aus dem Jahr 1986. Hier finden Sie eine Auswahl mit 21 weiblichen Hundenamen, die eher selten sind. many projects lack experimental controls and adequate replication, and have poorly chosen reference systems etc.). coral species n). Lilith Biblischer Name hebräischer Herkunft. This echoes the findings from a recent review based on mostly published literature, where the motivations behind restoration were evaluated . Reef Ecologic, Townsville, Qld, Australia, Roles The ideal monitoring program would be comprehensive and holistic, including ecological, social and economic metrics. Marine Ecology Department, Faculty of Biology and Chemistry (FB2), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany, Roles By necessity, we have used survival of corals to compare different studies in this review. Vornamen für Mädchen mit Ö. Bei uns findest Du insgesamt 23 Mädchennamen mit Ö. This excludes indirect coral restoration projects, such as disturbance mitigation (e.g. Methodology, Refer to the published literature and use methods established in the broader field of coral ecology, rather than inventing new metrics that will isolate data within the relatively small realm of coral restoration literature, 3) avoid complex equations (i.e. Further, a substantial number of projects (~60%) use plastics to attach coral fragments to the substrate, primarily in the form of epoxy putty or cable ties. Further, the use of proxies and indicator metrics may help reduce costs and time required. Finally, local permit restrictions and conditions may ultimately shape monitoring programs more than idealised guidelines with a pure scientific perspective. No, Is the Subject Area "Corals" applicable to this article? While our expanded search enabled us to avoid the bias from the more limited published literature, we acknowledge that using sources that have not undergone rigorous peer-review potentially introduces another bias. The future of coral reef restoration is likely to diverge towards two different scales; 1) small-scale site stewardship projects and 2) large-scale reef wide interventions. Restoration projects ideally require no attendance once they are mature. We argue that short monitoring times are problematic and may inflate the apparent survival rates of corals, as the likelihood of significant stress events causing mortality should increase over time. A large proportion of survey respondents did not report species or genera (but opted for ‘mixed’). Categories are not mutually exclusive as some methods are often combined. Funding acquisition, Conversely, in our rapidly changing planet, ecologists are learning from restoration projects. Investigation, No, Is the Subject Area "Reef ecosystems" applicable to this article? Was sicherlich auch mit Meiers Frau Monique zu tun hat, der GrÃ¼nderin des Modelabels Â«en SoieÂ». Instead, case studies from the grey literature and surveys mainly reported a desire to 'accelerate recovery post-disturbance’ (59 and 40% respectively). We encourage practitioners to state clear realistic objectives that are specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-bound (SMART)  and to design projects and monitoring programs that are well aligned to those objectives, to avoid artificially inflating expectations. In dieser Übersicht haben wir für dich lustige Namen zusammengestellt. Given that disturbed reefs are likely to suffer a reduction in genetic diversity due to large-scale disturbance events during this period [42–44], preserving coral species and genetic diversity through active restoration could ‘buy time’ for recovery following amelioration or the removal of stressors. 5 hour charge. In response to this, a more sustainable model has been developed where coral recruits or small fragments are raised in intermediate nurseries, prior to outplanting on restoration sites. e0226631. University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia, Roles We refer the reader to supplemental information (S3 File) for more information on species and genera specific survival. Diese zeichnen sich immer dadurch aus, dass sie Ã¤sthetisch toll gemacht sind. For example, a majority of artificial reefs and structures are made from concrete, and 10% of studies which attach corals to the substrate used cement and concrete. Conceptualization, While dynamic systems like coral reefs have an innate capacity for natural recovery [11,12], the frequency, intensity and severity of mass coral bleaching and extreme weather events is increasing [13,14], diminishing the time and capacity for recovery between catastrophic events . https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0226631.g002. Conceptualization, Writing – review & editing. Most methods described in this review have documented successful coral growth, and relatively high levels of survival. Conceptualization, Lilli. Ten categories of coral restoration are represented in the database, with the majority of these involving coral fragmentation or transplantation of coral fragments (68%). While the average survival of some genera exceeded 90%, these estimates were based on no more than three case studies, suggesting that seemingly highly suitable genera are still poorly supported by available information, and further replicated studies (particularly of the well-performing genera) are needed. Median values were used to describe spatial and temporal scales due to a substantial right-side (positive) skew in both data sets, with long tails. For example, the stated aims of coral restoration usually focus on accelerating reef recovery [59,112,113], re-establishing a functioning reef ecosystem [46,114], or mitigating population declines and endangered species management . There is limited incentive to publish or report failed restoration projects for researchers, practitioners and managers alike, and this may be influenced by concerns about discouraging funders and the general public. Conceptualization, There are 94 descriptions of direct transplantation in the review database, representing 20% of all records. here. No, Is the Subject Area "Peer review" applicable to this article? However, percentages reflect the proportion of case studies in each category. Funding acquisition, fish aggregation devices), and if corals were not included in the method. Investigation, No, Is the Subject Area "Larvae" applicable to this article? Research projects published in the peer-reviewed literature reported a median spatial scale of 300 m2, while survey respondents reported larger spatial scales (median 500 m2). In the past decade, Mars Incorporated has developed a modular approach to restoring corals that is particularly suitable for deployment on unstable substrate. While the lack of standardisation is problematic, it is an understandable consequence of numerous groups and practitioners operating in isolation, with little communication and with widely different objectives. Practitioners advocating the use of a coral nursery phase for reef restoration highlight improved growth and survivorship rates of fragments, compared to direct transplantation. Writing – original draft, We assembled case studies and descriptions of coral restoration methods from four sources: 1) the primary literature (i.e.
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